Vocational Education Law of the People's Republic of China

(Adopted at the 19th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on May 15, 1996, promulgated by Order No.69 of the President of the People's Republic of China on May 15, 1996)

Contents

        Chapter I General Provisions
        Chapter II The System of Vocational Education
        Chapter III The Implementation of Vocational Education
        Chapter IV The Guarantee of Vocational Education
        Chapter V Supplementary Provisions

Chapter I General Provisions

        Article 1 With a view to implementing the strategy of rejuvenating China through science and education, developing vocational education, enhancing the quality of laborers and promoting the construction of the socialist modernization, this Law is hereby enacted in accordance with the Education Law and the Labor Law.
        Article 2 This Law shall apply to various vocational school education at various levels and vocational training in various forms. Special training conducted by state organs for their personnel shall be prescribed separately by laws and regulations.
        Article 3 Vocational education is an important part of educational undertakings of the state and an important way to promote the economic and social development and the employment.
        The state shall develop the vocational education, push the vocational education reform, raise the quality of vocational education, establish and improve a vocational education system that keeps abreast of the market economy and social progress.
        Article 4 Vocational education shall follow the state's educational policy, giving the education receivers education on ideology, politics and vocational ethics, teaching vocational knowledge, developing vocational technical abilities, conducting vocational directions and raising the quality of the education receivers in an all-round way.
        Article 5 Citizens shall have the right to receive vocational education.
        Article 6 People's governments at various levels shall incorporate the development of vocational education into the planning of the national economy and social development.
Trade associations, enterprises and institutional organizations shall perform their duties to carry out vocational education in accordance with law.
        Article 7 The state shall adopt measures to develop rural vocational education and support the minority nationality regions, remote border areas and poverty-stricken areas to develop their vocational education.
        The state shall adopt measures to assist women in receiving vocational education, organize the unemployed to receive vocational education in various forms and give aid to the development of the vocational education for disabled people.
        Article 8 Vocational education shall, in the light of actual needs and according to the vocational categories and vocational grade standards, adopt systems of academic credentials, training certifications and vocational credentials.
        The state shall adopt a system under which workers shall receive necessary vocational education before taking up occupations or going to their posts.
        Article 9 The state shall encourage and organize scientific research in vocational education.
        Article 10 The state shall give rewards to organizations and individuals who have made remarkable achievements in the work of vocational education.
        Article 11 The education administrative department of the State Council shall be responsible for the overall planning, comprehensive coordination of and macro control of vocational education.
        The education administrative department, the labor administrative department and other relevant departments of the State Council shall, within the scope of their functions and duties prescribed by the State Council, be respectively responsible for relevant work of vocational education.
        Local People's governments at county level and above shall strengthen the leadership, overall coordination, supervision, direction and assessment with regard to the work of vocational education in their own administrative regions.

Chapter II The System of Vocational Education

        Article 12 The state shall, in accordance with the economic development level and the situation of universal education of various regions, implement the educational division at different stages mainly after junior middle school, institute and improve a vocational education system under which vocational education and vocational training shall be developed concurrently and vocational education shall be connected with other education with coordinate development of both.
        Article 13 Vocational school education includes primary, secondary and higher vocational school education.
        Primary and secondary vocational school education shall be carried out respectively by primary and secondary vocational schools. Higher vocational school education shall, in accordance with the actual needs and conditions, be undertaken by higher vocational school or by common institutions of higher learning. Other schools may, in accordance with the overall planning by the education administrative department, implement vocational school education at corresponding levels.
        Article 14 Vocational training includes training before employment, training for army men transferred to civilian work, training for apprentices, on-the-job training, transfer training and other training of vocational nature. Vocational training may, according to the actual situation, be classified as primary, secondary or higher vocational training.
        Vocational training shall be respectively undertaken by corresponding vocational training institutions and vocational schools.
        Other schools and educational institutions may, according to their educational capacity, develop various vocational training to meet the needs of the society.
        Article 15 In addition to the educational institutions for disabled people which shall give vocational education to disabled people, vocational schools, vocational training institutions and other educational institutions at various levels and of various types shall, in accordance with relevant provisions of the state, admit disabled students and give them vocational education.
        Article 16 Common middle schools may, in line with local conditions, open vocational education courses or, in accordance with the actual needs, appropriately increase the contents of vocational education in teaching.

Chapter III The Implementation of Vocational Education

        Article 17 Local People's governments at county level and above shall sponsor vocational schools and vocational training institutions and make them as mainstays and examples, give guidance and support to vocational schools and vocational training institutions held in accordance with law in rural areas or by enterprises, institutional organizations, social organizations, other social groups or citizens.
        Article 18 People's governments at county level shall, in accordance with the need of overall and coordinate development of rural economy, agricultural science, technology and rural education, conduct vocational education in various forms, develop training of practical technology and promote the development of rural vocational education.
        Article 19 The competent departments of the governments and trade associations shall jointly sponsor or sponsor on their own vocational schools and vocational training institutions, organize, coordinate and direct the enterprises and institutional organizations of their own sector or trade in running vocational schools and vocational training institutions.
        Using modern teaching methods to develop vocational education shall be encouraged by the state.
        Article 20 Enterprises shall, in accordance with their actual situation, give vocational education in a planned way to their staff and workers and persons to be employed.
        Enterprises may jointly run or run on their own vocational schools and vocational training institutions, they may also entrust vocational schools or vocational training institutions with the vocational education of their staff and workers or persons to be employed by them.
        Staff and workers engaging in technical work must receive proper training before going to their posts. Staff and workers engaging in special work must receive relevant training and obtain qualifications for the special work.
        Article 21 The state encourages institutional organizations, social organizations, other social groups and citizens to run vocational schools and vocational training institutions in accordance with relevant provisions of the state.
        Procedures for sponsorship of vocational schools and vocational training institutions in China by organizations or individuals from abroad shall be formulated by the State Council.
        Article 22 For jointly sponsoring a vocational school or vocational training institution, the sponsors shall conclude a contract for the joint sponsorship.
        Where a competent department of the government, trade association, enterprise or institutional organization entrusts a vocational school or vocational training institution with vocational education, a contract shall be concluded for the entrustment.
        Article 23 In conducting vocational education, vocational schools and vocational training institutions shall combine education with practice, serve the local economic construction, maintain close ties with enterprises and train practical personnel and skilled workers.
        Vocational schools and vocational training institutions may run enterprises and training places regarding the vocational education.
        Article 24 For establishment of a vocational school, the following basic conditions must be satisfied:
        (1) Have its organizational structure and constitution;
        (2) Have qualified teachers;
        (3) Have teaching places which accord with the prescribed standards, and facilities and equipment suitable for the vocational education; and
        (4) Have necessary funds for running the school and stable sources of the funds.
        The following basic conditions must be satisfied for the establishment of a vocational training institution:
        (1) Have its organizational structure and management system;
        (2) Have teachers and management personnel suited to the training tasks;
        (3) Have necessary places, facilities and equipment for the conduct of training; and
        (4) Have necessary funds.
        The establishment, changes and termination of vocational schools and vocational training institutions shall be conducted in accordance with relevant provisions of the state.
        Article 25 Students receiving education from vocational schools shall, after passing the examination of the school, be issued academic credentials in accordance with relevant provisions of the state. Students receiving vocational training shall, after passing the examination of the vocational schools or vocational training institutions which give the training, be issued training certifications in accordance with relevant provisions of the state.
        Academic credentials and training certifications shall, in accordance with relevant provisions of the state, be used as certifications of graduates and trainees of vocational schools and vocational training institutions when them are employed.

Chapter IV The Guarantee of Vocational Education

        Article 26 The state encourages raising funds from various channels according to law for the development of vocational education.
        Article 27 People's governments of various provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government shall determine the average financial standard per student of vocational schools in their administrative regions; relevant departments of the State Council shall, in conjunction with the financial department of the State Council, determine the average financial standard per student of vocational schools under the departments. Sponsors of vocational schools shall, in accordance with the average financial standards per student, appropriate in full the vocational education funds.
        People's governments at various levels and relevant departments of the State Council shall increase step by step the financial allocations for vocational schools and vocational training institutions.
        No organization or individual may embezzle or pocket a portion of funds for vocational education.
        Article 28 Enterprises shall bear the expenses for vocational education given to their staff and workers and persons to be employed by them. The concrete measures shall be formulated according to law by relevant departments of the State Council together with the finical department of the State Council or by People's governments of provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the central government.
        Article 29 If any enterprise fails to conduct vocational education in accordance with
Article 20 of this Law, the local People's government at county level or above shall order it to make correction; if the enterprise refuses to make correction, the vocational education funds that the enterprise should bear may be collected, and such funds shall be used for the local vocational education.
        Article 30 People's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government may set aside a special sum or arrange a portion for vocational education from the local extra charges they have decided to collect for education in accordance with relevant provisions of the Education Law.
        Article 31 People's governments at various levels may appropriate proper amounts for rural vocational training from the funds for developing agricultural science and technology or for spreading the technology.
        Article 32 Vocational schools and vocational training institutions may charge tuition fees from students receiving secondary or higher vocational school education or vocational training, but students with financial difficulties and disabled students shall enjoy a partial or total tuition waiver. The measures for collection of tuition shall be formulated by People's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government.
        The state encourages enterprises, institutional organizations, social organizations, other social groups and citizens to establish, in accordance with relevant provisions of the state, scholarship and loans for vocational education to give rewards to students getting excellent marks in studies or to aid students with financial difficulties.
        Article 33 Incomes received from the running of enterprises and provision of social service by vocational schools and vocational training institutions shall be mainly used to develop vocational education.
        Article 34 The state encourages financial institutions to support and develop vocational education by applying the way of credit.
        Article 35 The state encourages enterprises, institutional organizations, social organizations, other social groups and citizens to donate to vocational education, encourages organizations and individuals from abroad to give financial aid or make donations to vocational education. The aid and donation offered must be used in vocational education.
        Article 36 People's governments at county level and above and relevant departments shall incorporate the training of vocational education teachers into the planning of construction of contingent of teachers, so as to ensure that the contingent of vocational education teachers can meet the needs of the development of vocational education.
        Vocational schools and vocational training institutions may engage specialized technical persons, persons with special technical ability and teachers of other educational institutions as part-time teachers. The relevant departments and units shall give convenience.
        Article 37 Relevant departments of the State Council, local People's governments at county level and above and the organizations and citizens running vocational schools and vocational training institutions shall strengthen the construction of productive and training bases for vocational education.
        Enterprises and institutional organizations shall accept students and teachers from vocational schools and vocational training institutions to do practice; those doing practice on certain posts shall be paid properly.
        Article 38 People's governments at county level and above and relevant departments shall establish and improve a service system for vocational education and strengthen the work of edition, publishing and distribution of teaching materials for vocational education.

Chapter V Supplementary Provisions

        Article 39 Those violating provisions of the Education Law in vocational education activities shall be punished in accordance with relevant provisions of the Education Law.
        Article 40 This Law shall enter into force on September 1, 1996.

 

[source:eBeijing.gov.cn]