1.Present Environmental Status
This sub-plan is made on the basis of the Objectives and Tasks listed by the Beijing Olympic Action Plan, aiming at realizing Green Olympics, enhancing sustainability of the city and ensuring the 2008 Olympics to create rich and unique environmental heritage for Beijing, China and the Olympic movements.
(1) Environmental Quality and Ecological Conditions
With the fast economic development in Beijing, breakthroughs were also made in the prevention and control of environmental pollution, the improvement of environmental quality and the strengthening of eco-environmental conservation. During the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, about 34 billion RMB Yuan investment was made to protect the environment, accounting for 3.3% of the GDP of the period. From 1999 to 2001, the city's annual environmental investment has exceeded 10 billion RMB Yuan.
In 2001, the natural gas supply for the urban area of Beijing reached 1.4 billion cubic meters; the floor area heated by centralized-heating system covered 100 million square meters; the area heated by electricity and geo-thermal energy reached 6 million square meters; and all coal-burning small cooking and hot water stoves and 8,600 sets of coal-burning heating boilers in the urban area have been converted to cleaner energy. Through banning leaded gas and enforcement of more stringent emission standards, over 400,000 vehicles have reached the emission limits equivalent to those applied in Europe in early 1990's. All industrial discharge has hit the state limits by May 2000.
the domestic refuse received safe treatment and disposal. On the other hand, the number of the autobus and trolley bus reached 13,000 and the total length of rail transportation increased to 54 kilometers.
The programs for building urban green shelter, afforestation in the remote area, development of ecological agriculture, soil erosion control and desert and barren land reclamation are all well under way. By 2001, urban and main towns' green coverage rate increased to 38.8% and city-wide green coverage rate reached 44%. Building of three green shelters in the mountainous, plain and urban areas has made great progress. The central government supported ecological restoration and conservation around Beijing-Tianjin and in the northern China as a whole is very well progressed.
In 2001, the annual averages of SO2, NOX, TSP and CO in urban air decreased to 0.064, 0.127, 0.370 and 2.6 milligram per cubic meter respectively, about 47%, 16%, 2% and 21% down compared with 1998 when the pollution was most serious. With the renovation and pollution control efforts, water quality in the urban waterways has reached national standards for their respective functions. In general, city-wide ecological conservation has been carried out steadily.
With above progresses, a working mechanism led by the municipal government, supervised collectively by the environmental departments, managed by different departments and participated by the general public has been formed. The laws and regulations for the environmental protection and the management systems have been formulated and enforced. In August 2000, the Green Olympic Action Plan was signed jointly by Beijing Olympic Bidding Committee, the relevant municipal authorities and more than 20 environmental NGO's. With the implementation of the plan, The concept of Green Olympics becomes more and more popular among the Beijing citizens.
Generally speaking, a solid foundation has been laid for the strategy of the Green Olympics in the aspects of legislation, technology, economy and public awareness.
(2) Major Environmental Challenges
Despite the great progress made in recent years in Beijing's environmental protection and ecological conservation, there is still much for us to do to reach the requirement of a green Olympic Games, owing much to the restrictions in natural geography and climate conditions and the environmental pollution caused by human activities.
The air pollution in the urban area is still serious. Particle concentration in the ambient air still keeps at relatively high level while the concentration of other pollutants has come close to or already met the national standards.
The shortage of water resource exaggerates the pollution of water body. The main problems are the shortage of water resources and the irrational structure in water consumption, which has caused a serious lack of water used for ecological purpose. Moreover, there are not enough facilities to collect and treat the wastewater in the rural area while sewerage treatment rate in the urban area is still low.
The regional ecological system is fragile. Green coverage in the city still needs to be expanded and green land maintenance needs to be strengthened. The lack of green land in the downtown in particular, directly affects the healthy of the urban ecological system, which has led to, for example, an obvious heat island effect. In addition, the suburban area linking the urban and rural, still needs much improvement in its environmental outlook, green coverage and infrastructure.
Moreover, the mechanisms for the collection, transportation, recycling and treatment of hazardous wastes, industrial solid wastes and domestic refuse need to be improved. Control of noise, electric-magnetic radiation and radiological safety require more attention.
In the foreseeable future, a number of factors affecting environment, including city size, population, energy and resources consumption, vehicle fleet, water demand in urban area and the scale of construction, will keep increasing or maintain at a high level. More active measures to prevent and treat environmental pollution and improve the environmental quality should be taken to safeguard and improve the urban environmental quality and regional ecosystem.
2. Guideline and Objectives
The special effect of preparing and holding a Green Olympics in Beijing lies in: (a)to create a clean and beautiful environment for the 2008 Olympic Games and enhance the sustainability of the city; (b) to avoid any possible negative impact on the environment by the Olympic activities, and make the Games play an exemplary role in environmental protection in Beijing and the whole country; (c) to highlighting the principle of achieving harmony between man and the nature so as to improve the environmental and ecological awareness of the public.
Achieving Green Olympics have been taken as guiding principle of this sub-plan, which is targeted at building a sound ecosystem for the city while fulfilling environmental commitments made in the bid. The sub-plan gives full consideration to present status with first priority given to meeting the demands of the people. Phased measures are planned to realize an all-round improvement in Beijing's environmental quality and the sustainable development. In generally, the sub-plan aims to create a clean and beautiful environment for 2008 Olympic Games.
By 2008, based on the remarkable improvement in the regional ecosystem around Beijing-Tianjin, the environmental quality of different districts or waters in the city with specific functions should comply with their respective national standards, and the citywide ecosystem should be substantially improved. The environmental commitments made in the bid in connection with the preparation and staging of Olympic Games will be fully performed. In addition, guided by the principle of sustainable development, 2008 Olympic Games should show the world a great green event with outstanding contribution to environmental protection.
Ambient air quality: By 2008, the main air pollutants should meet the national standards based on the remarkable regional ecosystem improvement. During the Olympic period in 2008, concentration of SO2, NO2 and O3 in urban area should reach the WHO guidelines and the particles should be comparable to that in the major cities in the developed countries.
Water environment: By 2008, the water quality of Miyun and Huairou reservoir should keep meeting national standards, Guanting reservoir should basiclly resume the function of drinking water source; tap water quality should continue to meet WHO guidelines. The sewerage treatment rate (secondary treatment) in the urban area and the satellite towns should be increased to 90%, and the reclamation rate should come close to 50%.
Ecological conversation and construction: The structure of water consumption should be rationalized with more water available for ecological purpose. Moreover, over 70% of the soil erosion in the mountainous area and 100% of sandy bare land should be controlled. By 2007, urban and main towns' green coverage rate and city-wide green coverage rate should be raised to 45% and 50% respectively, thus forming three green shelters in the mountainous, plain and urban areas for the city. The agricultural area pollution and the wind-borne dust in the bare farmland should be harnessed. The natural reserves should cover around 10% of the territory of the city.
Industrial pollution: With the industrial pollution sources meeting the discharge limits steadily, the total discharge quantity of the pollutants should be further reduced and more efforts will be made to readjust the industrial structure and layout. Comprehensive renovation in heavily polluting industries located in the southeastern suburban and Shijingshan should be fasten. Especially, the production of iron and steel and cement should be reduced. Moreover, about 200 enterprises in the urban area should be relocated and efficient measures should be taken to prevent and control pollution in the key industries and the industrial pollution sources in suburban areas.
Solid wastes, noise, electric-magnetic radiation and radioactivity: By 2005, all the domestic refuse generated in the urban and the satellite towns should receive proper treatment and disposal with 50% being separately collected and 30% recycled. 80% of the industrial solid wastes should be reused or recycling and all the hazardous wastes should be safely treated and disposed. By 2008, the noise in the constructed urban areas should basically reach the national standard, the electric-magnetic radiation and radioactivity should be maintained complying with national standards.
3. Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution
In the period of this sub-plan, emphasis will be laid on the particle control in the air pollution control and protection of drinking water sources in water pollution control, thus to realize a fast improvement in the environmental quality. To tackle both symptoms and causes, this process needs not only the traditional end-of-pipe measures, but also the source reduction instruments like promoting cleaner production, developing recycled economy, raising higher standard, refining city plan, adjusting energy structure, improving industrial layout, and introduction of automobiles at higher quality. In this way, the total discharge of pollutants should be reduced significantly, leading environmental pollution control to a new stage.
(1) Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
The air quality improvement of Beijing is a complex challenge that not only involves the urban area, but also relies on the ecological improvement in the whole city and the surrounding areas. While strengthening the initiative to reduce air pollution within the urban area, citywide and regional ecological improvement, agricultural and industrial structure adjustment, and rational utilize of limited water resources are all of critical importance.
Prevention and control of coal-burning pollution: Beijing will greatly increase the use of cleaner energy and reduce coal burning in the urban areas. In 2007, the total coal consumption in the city will be reduced to less than 15 million tons from over 26 million tons in 2001; coal burned in the urban area will be reduced from 16 million tons in 2001 to about 8 million tons with only high quality coal with low sulfur content allowed in the city. At the same time, efforts will be made to popularize the renewable energy, including solar, geothermal and wind energy.
The second natural gas transmission pipeline from the gas field to Beijing will be built to increase natural gas supply capacity to 5 billion cubic meters in 2008.
Planned power transmission and distribution projects will be completed to introduce power from the surrounding area into Beijing. Advanced technology, like heat pump will be applied along with the urban rehabilitation to provide electric heating service for about 20 million square meters' floor area in 2007.
Natural gas power generation projects in Beijing Third Co-generation Power Plant and Gaojing Power Plant will be accomplished (the coal boiler in Gaojing Power Plant will be closed to reduce coal burning by about 1.5 million tons). New and expansion projects for gas-fired heat and cool co-generation plants will be implemented at Taiyanggong, Caoqiao and other places. In addition, the potential of the existing heating facilities will be tapped. With all these measures; floor area with district heating supply will increase by another 50 million square meters by 2008.
Development of renewable energy is promoted to achieve sustainability. Geothermal resources will be exploited to expend provide heating and cooling service for around 5 million square meters floor area by 2008. Solar energy and bio-mass energy utilization will receive high attention in rural area.
More attention will be paid to energy conservation regarding heat supply system reform and promotion of building energy conservation. Further energy consumption reduction in industries will be realized through restructuring and technological advancement. It is targeted to reduce energy consumption for unit GDP production by 6% annually to make Beijing join those of the leading cities in the country.
By the end of 2005, all coal-burning boilers smaller than 14 MW in the urban area will be converted to cleaner energy, including that of 14 MW or larger if available. In the rural towns, it will also be encouraged to use cleaner energy to replace coal-burning and those areas having no access to cleaner energy will be encouraged to develop centralized heating system with cleaning coal technology. In the preserved old urban bungalow area, clean energy will be used for heating. The allowed coal-burning boilers of 14 MW or larger should comply with stringent emission limits through use of low sulfur coal, highly effective technology for desulfurization and dust removal and on-line monitoring instruments.
Prevention and control of the vehicle emission pollution: Continue to give priority to public transportation, and lay emphasis on rail transportation (metro and light rail) so as to accelerate the development of the public transportation system in the urban area.
More stringent vehicle emission limits will be introduced in the city: from January 1, 2003, the light vehicle, heavy diesel vehicle will follow the second-stage emission limits that is equivalent to Euro II, and in 2005, the third-stage limits equivalent to Euro III will come into force. Moreover, emission limits for other types of automobiles will be tightened. No new automobiles failing to meet the limits will be allowed to enter Beijing's market or be granted licenses. On the other hand, efforts shall also be made to organize supply and sales of fuels matching the new limits. At the same time, it will be encouraged to use the automobiles powered by cleaner fuels, fuel cell vehicles, electricity-powered vehicles and other types of lower emission vehicle. By 2007, 90% public buses and 70% taxies shall be converted to cleaner energy.
Measures shall be made to accelerate the elimination of aging automobiles to guarantee reduction of total vehicle emission while the vehicle fleet keeps growing. Automobiles that have been in use by the end of 1992 will be discarded by 2007; the taxies with more than 500,000 kilometers' driving age should be timely scraped. Rules for eliminating the motorcycles will be formulated and enforced and national stipulations on eliminating the vehicles for agricultural use will be strictly enforced. More simplified dyna-mometer test lines will be provided to apply this exhaust test approach to all in-use vehicles and the limits will be lowered.
Environmental label management will be strengthened; traffic control will be tightened according to different automobile exhaust levels and I/M system will be mandated. Quality of the oil for automobile shall be safeguarded. Take stronger measures in law enforcement by relying on the departments of both environmental protection and traffic control so that more than 90% of the automobiles' exhaust will come up to the limits.
On the basis of the improvement of the road traffic and the public transit systems, reasonable number of parking lots in the downtown area shall be provided with the price of parking set at reasonable level to control the traffic flow volume on the motorway in the urban area. Measures will be taken to divert transit vehicles from other parts of the country from entering the Fifth Ring Road by 2004. Moreover, other measures to reduce traffic jam and encourage people to use public transits and bicycles shall be adopted.
Prevention and control of air-borne dust pollution: All construction sites must reach the standard stipulated for environmental protection and existing effective measures and systems will carried on to control the dust pollution. Resolute measures will be taken to control the air-borne dust raised on motorways. All transportation vehicles for bulk cargo driving within the Fourth Ring Road should be installed with enclosed tanks. By 2005, all the main motorways in the urban area will be cleaned and water-sprayed through mechanized equipment. Beijing Municipal Provision on Environmental Sanitation, Beijing Municipal Provision on Greening and other stipulations will be strictly enforced to further clarify the responsibility of relevant authorities and make regular check-up and inspections. To 2005, no bare land will remain in the urban area and city skirt. Management of the sand/stone farms will be tightened. To control raising dust in the bare farmland, farmers will be required to leave the stubble in the field without traditional plough.
Control of the secondary pollution. Above measures to cut the gaseous pollutants are effective means for controlling the production of secondary particles and ozone pollution. As well, to control VOC, active measures will be taken to cut the emissions from industry and commercial activities, building painting and daily life. By 2005, all the gas stations, main oil storage tanks and the oil refinery enterprises in the city should have installed hermetical oil gas recovery facilities. Open spray painting will be banned and enterprises must install facilities to recycle and treat the waste gas. Use of organic coating materials and organic dissolvent will be controlled while water dissolvent coating materials and other substitute technology will be promoted. The smoke from restaurants will be treated and the organic materials will be reduced with the emissions reaching their relevant limits.
(2) Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
Water is the core of a healthy ecosystem. The prevention and control of water pollution should consider reasonable development and utilization of regional water resources and water cycle. According to the state plan on the pollution control and management of the Haihe River Basin, emphasis is laid on the protection of Miyun Reservoir and the groundwater sources and restoring the Guanting reservoir as drinking water source. Great efforts will be made to reclaim the effluent from the sewerage collection and treatment facilities to provide more water for environmental, municipal purpose and production.
The protection of drinking water source to safeguard the quantity and quality of water. Cooperation with the upper reaches area shall be strengthen in the process of Haihe River Basin pollution control to safeguard the quantity and quality of the water from upper reaches of Miyun and Guanting reservoirs. In order to make Guanting reservoir resume the function of drinking water source, pollution control projects will be implemented as planned. More trees will be planted in the upper reaches of Miyun reservoir and Huairou reservoir to nourish the water source and eliminate soil erosion. Taking control of N and P as the focus, ecological agriculture in the surrounding area of the reservoirs will be promoted, cultivated farmland will be converted back to forest. Further measures will be taken to mitigate impact on the reservoirs by the production and life in the surrounding towns and villages. Fish farming in the protection zone will be banned. At the same time, the local rules and regulations will be strictly observed to control the business and tourist activities in the protection zone. Law enforcement team for the two reservoirs will be set up to carry out unified supervision and management. More efforts will be make to prevent and control the pollution in the aquifer of the groundwater supply zone in the western and northern suburban. Development of the sewerage collection and treatment system will be basically accomplished and sewerage percolation pits in the protection zone of ground drinking water sources will all been eliminated. Relevant measures for ecological agriculture, a large-scale water-source-nourishing forest and the domestic refuse collection and treatment in the protection zone of No.8 Waterworks will continue to be implement. Self-supply wells in the groundwater over-extracted area will be phased out and the reconstruction and expansion of existing water distribution network will be completed. Also, management of ground water sources in the rural area will be tightened.
The comprehensive improvement of the urban sewage treatment system and water environment. This work will be done in the Bahe River, Qinghe River, Liangshuihe River, North-ring waterways and Wenyuhe River with a view to improving the water quality of the lower reaches of the city. By 2008, about 90% of the urban sewage will be collected and treated. Sewerage treatment plants will be established in the satellite towns to ensure a treatment of 90% of sewage (secondary treatment) and primary or secondary class sewerage treatment plants will be built in 80% of the central towns. Sludge disposal facilities should be installed for the need of sewerage treatment. In places where there is the demand, small wastewater treatment facilities should be used to extract and treat sewerage directly to provide water for cleaning, irrigation and municipal purpose. The new pipes and network will be designed and built for treatment of early-stage rainfall. Environmental management in the building and operation of the wastewater treatment plants shall be improved, market-driven mechanism will be introduced to promote commercially viable operation in wastewater sector. In 2007, the centralized on-line monitoring system will be completed for the wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, the supplying system of fresh water for the surface waterways will be improved, water stored at Miyun and Guanting reservoir will be effectively used to provide fresh water for the downstream. Management and monitoring of the urban waterways shall be strengthened to ensure that water quality can meet their respective functional standards.
(3) Solid Waste Management
Waste management policy, reduction, recycle and safe treatment, will be carry on and waste management will be tightened based on the principle of recycle economy. Such measures as substitution of coal, control of one-shot products, simplifying commodity package, provision of pretreated vegetable to the urban area and advocating healthy consumption, will be taken to cut the production of industrial solid wastes, commercial garbage and domestic refuse at source and promote recycling. 80% of industrial solid waste should be reused by 2005 through industrial restructuring, improved the existing reuse system for coal ash and metallurgical residues and the provision of the treatment facilities for gangue and tailings. Further improvement for reuse shall be pursuit. A strict management system for hazardous waste will be developed to realize 100% safe treatment and disposal. The hazardous waste that cannot be treated on-site will be collected and treated in central treatment and disposal facilities such as the new landfill site to be built. Another centralized treatment facility will be built to treatment medical waste, and the centralized treatment rate should reach 85% in 2005 and 90% in 2008. Management of the transportation, piling-up and utilization of the construction wastes will be strengthened. The system for separate collection, transportation and treatment of domestic refuse will be improved, and the system for waste recycle will be well developed. In addition to guarantee the normal running of the existing waste management facilities, Jiaojiapo landfill site and a number of other facilities will be developed to have all the domestic refuse in both the urban and the satellite towns receive safe treatment by 2005. By the end of 2007, 80% of center towns should have installed their own refuse treatment facilities. On-line monitoring system shall be installed for urban domestic refuse treatment sites. Measures shall be taken to prevent potential secondary pollution like air-borne dust, pollution of groundwater, incineration exhaust exceeding the standards and odor from the process of the collection and treatment of rubbish. At the same time, supervision shall be tightened to prevent hazardous waste from being mixed with urban domestic refuse, serious punishment will be imposed in case of violation.
(4) Prevention and Control of Industrial Pollution
The aim of the prevention and control of industrial pollution is to substantially cut the discharge. The primary approaches include implementation of total discharge quantity control program, application of life-cycle control and recycle economy, readjusting the industrial structure and layout, improvement of environment management within the enterprise, popularization of advanced technology, elimination of the outmoded technique and closing the enterprises with heavy pollution. It should be continued to control over pollution especially, the fugitive emission of air pollutants.
Enterprises will be encouraged to apply the notion of recycle economy into the different links of their production. Recycle economy should be developed gradually in major industries and 1-2 ecological industrial parks will be built. ISO14000 environment management system and cleaner production will be promoted among industries to apply life-cycle control and source reduction to cut the pollutant discharge. On the basis of improved technology and sound management, the township enterprises shall proceed with restructuring in terms of industrial structure and product portfolio as well as pollution control. Environmental Impact Assessment for relocation of polluting industries in the urban area will be high-lighted to prevent the shift of the pollution toward the suburban area.
By 2008, about 200 enterprises will be moved out of the south-eastern suburbs and the Fourth Ring Road. In principle, the polluting enterprises in the south-eastern suburbs will be closed down or moved out to have the lands along the Fourth Ring Road be converted to commercial or residential area instead of the industrial purpose. Control on the dust pollution in metallurgical and cement production will be tightened with special focus on the fugitive discharge. By the end of 2002, the Capital Steel & Iron Corporation will cut its steel production by 2 million tons; and further reduction shall be realized with the heavily polluting processes eliminated and the product portfolio optimized to reduce pollution. The small and medium-sized building material production enterprises in the far rural areas like Fangshan County, will be readjusted gradually and closed down instead of high and new technology processes. By 2005, all vertical kilns will be stopped and bring the cement production scale under strict control.
(5) Management of Noise, Electro-Magnetic Radiation and Radioactivity
Urban and community planning shall be rationally refined. Control over the noise caused by transportation, construction and social activity will be tightened. The motorway planning will give full consideration of traffic noise, at the proper sections, noise-deafening wall, noise-deafening structure and low-noise road surface will be adopted. Moreover, the large lorries that enter the city during night will be under strict control in the driving routes and speed. No blow from any kind of automobiles will be permitted within the Forth Ring Road and no whistle from the train will be allowed in the sensitive area of the city. Residents along certain sections of the railway shall be resettled as necessary, noise insulation wall shall be built along the railway and the urban rails. Noise problem around the Capital Airport will be resolved as planned, and special emphasis shall be laid on the harassment to the residents living at vicinity of the airport expansion site.
Management over the report and registration of existing electric-magnetic radiation and radioactive sources and radioactive waste shall be strengthened, and the approval of new project shall be tightened. A management center for radioactive environment will be established. Storehouse for radioactive waste and the monitoring network and management system for radioactive environment will be set up.
4. Ecological Conservation and Construction
In order to improve the environmental quality, it is not only needed to conduct pollution control around the city urban itself, but also needed to strengthen the ecological conservation and construction at city-wide and regional level. The long-term objective for a permanent improvement of the urban environment needs a healthy regional ecological system. Therefore, the environmental protection in Beijing includes ecological conservation and construction in the suburban plain and mountainous area and the vicinity of the Capital, as well as the prevention and treatment of the urban pollution.
In order to implement the state program for eco-environmental conservation and execute the specific implementing measures of the Beijing Municipal Government, eco-environmental conservation plan of the city will be developed and define the ecological zones with various functions. Development of green area and integrated environmental sanitation control will be strengthened. Three green shelters will be formed for the city. Development of green food and organic food will be advocated to shift the traditional agriculture into ecological sound one. Restructure of water consumption will undergo adjustment to ensure the water supply for ecological purpose, and help to build a healthy ecosystem for Beijing realize the harmonious co-existence between the man and the nature.
(1) Identification of Ecological Zones
The water source protection zones and conservation area of Miyun Reservoir, Huairou Reservoir, Guanting Reservoir, and their surrounding areas and Waterworks No.8, the sand-retaining areas along Yongding river, Chaobai river, Dasha river basins, Nankou of Changping and Kangzhuang of Yanqing, and the soil erosion control areas in upstream of Chao river, Bai river, Yongding river and Ru river, will be identified as the key ecological conservation zones. Rescue measures will be taken for ecological conservation in these areas, to prevent further ecological degradation through a strictly controlled utilization and scientific restoration. Mandatory measures will be adopted to protect the resources conservation zones of water, land, forest, mineral, aquatic products, bio-species and tourism. Areas with groundwater over exploited and fragile ecosystem will be defined to ban the mineral exploitation, land use and logging.
Establishing Ecological Demonstration District and Ecological Agriculture County will be promoted in the rural area. Highly efficiency and ecologically sound agriculture will be developed to realize sustainable development and build a healthy ecological system. Constructing natural reserves shall receive high attention, additional 15-20 natural reserves located at Xiaolongmen, Miyun Reservoir and other areas will be added by 2005. After further successive expansion, about natural reserves will cover around 10% of Beijing's territory by 2008. Environmental protection in the places embodying cultural, historical and natural relics will be promoted. Integrated planning and management of tourism will give priority to the development of ecological tourism and improvement of forest parks and scenic resorts. Rules, supporting standard and evaluation system for eco-environmental conservation will be developed to form a strict ecological monitoring system.
(2) Rational Development and Utilization of Water Resources
The basic principle for the rational utilization of water resources is to try every possible means to keep the source of surface and ground water clean, make ultimate use of storm-water and reclaimed water to ensure provision of the water for ecological use. Water-efficient agriculture and industry shall be developed to build a water-efficient city.
Water saving efforts will continue, the price of water supply shall be increased by a reasonable margin. By 2005, all the farmland and fruit gardens will be irrigated by water-saving equipment and the water for farm use should have a sharp decrease. By 2007, the water for industrial use should decline to 440 million cubic meters from the present 600 million. Moreover, water saving in daily life will be encouraged, the popularity rate of water efficient appliance should reach 80%. Gray water reuse among the public institutions and residential communities will be promoted. Wastewater reclamation facilities will be developed along with the set-up of sewerage treatment plants. By 2005, the wastewater reclamation after necessary treatment in urban area will reach 300 million cubic meters (reuse for agricultural and industrial purposes, municipal use, green land irrigation and supplementary of waterways). The reuse rate of effluent from the sewerage treatment plants will go up to about 50% by 2008.
Program for rational exploitation of groundwater will be developed to gradually raise the groundwater level. Emphasis would be laid on control over exploitation of groundwater for industrial and agricultural use. Investigations and studies on the exploitation and utilization of groundwater in plain area will be launched. Importance will be attached to the protection of the existing ecological system in wetlands and development of artificial wetland as appropriate. At the same time, storm-water will be developed as alternative water resource to supplement and nourish the source of ground water. Main approach will be interception and recharge during the flood season through the forestation in front of the mountains, the plantation with tree patches, the treatment of sand/stone farms and the development of wetland system. Recharging groundwater with treated wastewater and combination of recharging and storage will be studied. Standards for various use of reclaimed wastewater will be formulated to promote wastewater reuse.
(3) Green Shelters
By 2005, three green shelters will be formed for the city. 100,000 hectare's forest will be increased in the mountainous area to realize 70% forest coverage in the mountainous area. In the plain area, 23,000 hectare's green belt along five waterways and ten highways and forest network in the farmland will be built; satellite towns and the center towns will be brought to meet the standards of Garden Town. 12,500 hectare's green shelter will be formed for the urban area and the second green shelter shall be built. By 2007, about 470,000 hectares' soil erosion land will be controlled, accounting for 70% of the total erosion area.
(4) Transforming of Desert Areas
Control of the five sands hazard sources along the three rivers and two sandy area (namely, the Yongding River, the Chaobai River, the Dasha River and at Kangzhuang in Yanqing County and Nankou in Changping), will be facilitated. By 2005, over 10,000 hectares' forest to defend wind and retain sand will be planted. By 2007, all the potential desertifying farmlands will be under control. Beijing will work closely with relevant provinces in the ecological improvement program for Beijing, Tianjin, and the surrounding area organized by the central goverment.
(5) Agricultural Restructuring
Along with agricultural restructuring and development of ecological agriculture, Beijing will lay emphasis on agriculture's role in the protection of water, air and soil. Grain production especially paddy field shall be reduced; agricultural area pollution source pollution caused by husbandry of livestock and poultry shall be controlled. Moreover, use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide shall be substantially reduced. Agricultural land use plan shall be updated to readjust crop production structure, actively develop green agriculture, return the related farmland to forest and grassland and stop new reclamation for agricultural use. Air-borne dust from farmland shall be reduced by planting winter crop, improving the farmland forestry network and leaving the stubble in the farm without traditional plough. Also, protective cultivation technology shall be promoted and high quality and high efficiency ecological agriculture will be developed to eliminate seasonal bare farmland by 2005. Moreover, by 2004, all the husbandry industry in the area of protection zones of drinking water sources and within the Fifth Ring Road will be closed down or moved out. By 2007, all the wastewater from the allowed large scale husbandry industry will should comply with discharge limits after necessary treatment and night soil utilization rate shall reach 90%.
Great effort will be made to develop the production based of safe food, green food and organic food, implement standardized management and ensure 100% of the food product reaching the safety standard.
(6) Bio-diversity Conservation
On the basis of the features of the mountainous, plain, and urban area, separate ecological systems will be identified with specific plans set for ecological conservation and construction. Emphasis will be laid on the ecosystem conservation in the plain area linking the mountain area and urban area to form the natural and semi-natural ecological corridor linking the downtown area with the outer area.
Protection of the wildlife and the ancient famous trees and restoration of the rare plants and animals will receive high attention. By 2005, the research center for biological disease control in the forest area, the monitoring system for wild plant and wetland, and the monitoring center for wildlife shall be established. By 2008, the first aid center for the wildlife and the protection center for aquatic wildlife shall be set up. Research will also be made on the technology of reintroducing animals and the approaches to restore the rare wildlife in natural habitat. The reserves for the wetland along Weishui River, Wenyu river, and at Hanshiqiao will be restored. In building of various green lands, emphasis will be laid on the configuration of bio-diversity, to establish big artificial green land for different species, for better protection of the wild bird in the urban area.
Research on relevant genetic technologies will be launched.
(7) Urban Forestation and Landscape Improvement
By 2005, 40% of the city's urban area will be covered with green land, and by 2007, this figure will go over 43%. State Standard for Garden City will be strictly observed. Each of the central district in the city urban shall build 2 stretches of large green land of 3-5 hectares and each suburban district is required to build 3 large pieces of green land with more than 10 hectares. That will create a total of 50 large green lands with more than 1 hectares' area. Every means possible will be tried to expand the public green land to basically provide a street park in every 500 meters block. More green should be added aside the Second Ring Road and the 2 axle-roads of city layout both from north to south and east to west. Along other waterways and motorways, high-class green belt shall be built, especially along the 255 main streets and roads. Three-dimension plantation will be advocated to add green to the walls and flyovers. Roof plantation will be practiced. The residents will be encouraged to add green to their balcony. Efforts to dismantle walls to give a view of green and dismantle the illegal building occupying reserved green land will continue. Water surface in the urban area will be well maintained and expanded as appropriate. Landscape of water surface will be improved.
(8) Comprehensive City Renovation
Beijing will say no to any new illegal building. By 2004, all existing illegal buildings in the urban area will be dismantled, and the campaign shall be completed citywide by 2007. Efforts to rectify the order and environmental in suburb linking the urban and rural area will be intensified, and management of the floating population in such places will be strengthened. By 2007, the environment status and management in such part will come up to the level of the urban area. Domestic refuse collection facilities shall be rehabilitated to realize airtight and prompt transportation and the clearance of the waste. More attention would be paid to the outlook of the urban buildings and the relevant facilities so that the style of an ancient capital can be kept in an orderly and beautiful manner.
5. Specific Environmental and Ecological Protection Measures for Olympic Games
(1) Site Selection
Land using plan of the city should be observed in selection of sites for venues and routes for the competitions. All venues shall be constructed in planned sports and cultural areas, and shall be away from the water source protection area, natural reserves, wildlife conservation area and other environmentally sensitive areas. The cultural relics in the planned Olympic Green shall be preserved and protected during the construction period of the venues. By completion of the Olympic Green, the surrounding environment of these relics will be substantially improved and the local landscape should be fully integrated into the Olympic facilities. Environmental impact assessment shall be prepared for the preparation and staging of the Games.
(2) Clean Energy
In the design of the venues, full consideration will be given to make use of natural light and ventilation. Photovoltaic technology will be applied to utilize solar energy in supporting facilities, including the road lamp of the venue, the lawn lighting facilities, lamp for public lavatory and irrigation. The hot water for the shower in the Olympic Village will be heated with solar cells. Geothermal and other types of renewable energy sources will be exploited in the surrounding areas, to supply heating and cooling service to the Olympic Green with application of water heat pump technology and other new technologies. Part of power supply for the Olympic Green will come from wind mill out of Beijing, the potential of building local wind mill will be studied.
(3) Clean Transportation
The city's existing public transportation system will be expanded to provide transportation service for the Games. Rail will be built to link the urban metro and the venues. Preferential policies will be formulated to encourage taking public transportation, for example, spectators can enjoy free services on specific bus lines to the competition venues. In the Olympic Green, no emission or ultra-low emission vehicles will be used. To encourage the use of bicycles, specific bicycle lanes and bicycles will be provided in the Village.
(4) Resources Conservation
To be water and energy efficient constitutes the main guideline in the Olympic venue construction and activities. Water and energy efficient building materials and equipment will be selected for the venues. To protect the drinking water sources, water pollution prevention and control technologies will be applied in building of venues located close to the water source conversation area. In the Olympic Green, treated sewage and wastewater will be used for irrigating the green land, cleaning the automobiles and site cleaning and the lake or waterways shall be maintained at high quality. Measures will be taken to protect tourism resources and other cultural and geological heritage.
(5) Wastes Management
Use of one-shot things will be restricted. Waste from the shops and other service facilities will be separately collected for centralized treatment. Medical wastes will be sent to off-site centralized facility for safe treatment.
A seven square kilometers' Olympic forest park will be developed. Large scale water-efficient green land with specific characteristics will be built around the different venues. The green area shall accounts for 40-50% of the total of all Olympics projects. Plants will be carefully selected, giving preference to local ones, try to plant bush, perennial root flowers and cover plant so as to reach a harmonious effect among these plants and realize integration into the natural landscape.
(7) Green Product
Part of the supporting facilities, materials and appliances will use recyclable or recycled materials; BOCOG's main publications will use recycled paper. Life-cycle assessment will be adopted in selection of building materials.
(8) Clean Technology
Clean energy technology, fuel cell technology, advanced transportation management technology, new building material technology and so on will be widely adopted in Olympic projects. Ozone depleting substance control program will be implemented six years ahead of the original schedule.
(9) Clean Construction
All the construction activities must conform to the above-mentioned principles, measures shall be taken to control noise, dust and arrange transportation so as to minimize impact on the environment and people's daily life.
(10) Environmental Education and Public Participation
Green Olympic Action Plan published in August 2000 will be fully implemented. An education center for sustainable development will be built in the Olympic Green. Environmental education on Green Olympics will be launched among the middle and primary schools.
6. Management and Assurance Measures
In order to secure a smooth execution of different measures, emphasis will be laid on the building of the legal system for environmental protection, formulation and enforcement of relevant rules and regulations, encouraging innovation in the mechanism and policies and implement modern environmental management to realize Green Olympics principle.
(1) Improvement of City Management
The balance among social development, economic construction and environmental protection is of vital importance for the development of a city. Recycle economy will be observed as guiding principle to coordinate the economic activities and social progress in Beijing. Along with readjusting economic structure and raising the resource efficiency, the industries focus on recycle economy will be encouraged. A feed back process model of resources-product-recycle resources will be established as a whole to secure a rational and long-term utilization of materials and energy and establish and phase in a recycling-pervasive society. Waste reduction, reuse, and recycle in resource utilization, municipal service, industrial and agricultural production, commercial operation and daily life will be receive high attention and priority. Cleaner production in industries and ecological restoration in agricultural activities are of special concern for development of an ecosystem friendly economy.
(2) Strengthening of Environmental Supervision
In line with the current situation, the local legal system for environmental protection will be upgraded. Enactment and amendment of the rules and regulations on prevention and control of noise, hazardous wastes, and dust would be the priority. Standards for the automobile exhaust, the discharge of pollutants from boilers, etc., will be updated. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission limits and other standards will be introduced at appropriate timing. Levies on discharge of SO2 and NOx shall increase. More emphasis will be attached to the enforcement of environmental laws with harsher punishment imposed on violation cases. The enforcement team will be expanded and strengthened to improve the qualification of the team. Joint actions will be launched in major environmental enforcement programs.
Environmental management will be tightened to promote both total amount control and life-cycle control. Total amount control should be conducted on the basis of the environmental carrying capacity. Pollution discharge permitting and registration system will be refined; implementation of deadline control tool in pollution treatment will be high lightened. Risk assessment and post assessment will be required for construction projects in environmentally sensitive areas; regional EIA and strategic EIA will be developed as necessary.
(3) Environmental Awareness Improvement
Full scale and long-term environmental awareness program will be developed and implemented and environmental alarming publicity will be launched. Youth environmental education bases will be increased. Environmental reporting system will be improved with the environment information regularly published and relevant hotline and websites 24-hour opened. Compliant accessibility and response will be improved and be exposed to the supervision by the public. Public participation will be introduced in the relevant management and decision-making processes. Influence shall be imposed to guide the public to bring up an environment-friendly consumption mode.
(4) Capacity Building
Pollution control and ecosystem conservation rely heavily on scientific advance. Environmental scientific research focused on air pollution control will continue to carried out and multi-discipline studies in economy, system, law, culture, education, auditing and the consumption habit will be promoted. Computerized environmental information management would be provided. An environmental monitoring and control center will be set up to provide sophisticated environmental monitoring and control, which will be expanded to cover regional ecosystem. A modern emergency response and aid team will be set up. Attention would be paid on the application of advanced technology and the technological service for environmental protection.
(5) Economic Instruments
Based on the requirements of market economy, attention would be paid on study of cost-effectiveness of environmental measures and other economic instruments and policies. It would be needed to raise the levies on the discharge of pollutants and the centralized treatment of solid waste and sewage to the level a little higher than the treatment costs. Heating tariff will be reasonably adjusted and efforts will be made to shift heating tariff collection mode to be based on the actual energy consumption. Provision of preferential price (such as different prices at peak hours and valley hours) for heating with electricity will be highlighted and implemented. Policies to encourage for utilization of clean energy and renewable energy, wastes recycle, relocation of factories and comprehensive utilization of wastes will be developed. Pollution permit trade will be piloted in selected sectors and areas. A sound environmental investment and financing mechanism will be developed to encourage participation by enterprises and private sector. International cooperation will be strengthened. Environmental input will be maintained at over 4% of the GDP of the same period.
(6) Green Olympic Environmental Management System
An environmental management system will be established to strengthen management and supervision on implementation of Green Olympics. In line with the guideline of this sub-plan, requirements to implement Green Olympics' and relevant national and local regulations and standards, specific technical standards and guidelines will be developed for Olympic facilities. They will include indoor and outdoor air quality, hygienic monitoring at public places, environmental safety assessment, the qualification of the sponsors, the evaluation of the building materials and the environmental requirements in architectural designs, etc. An advisory network participated by the experts both at home and abroad, non-government organizations, enterprises, sponsors and citizens will be set up. A professional audit and assessment system will be organized to ensure continuous improvement in the implementation of Green Olympics principle. An environmental emergence response mechanism during the Olympic period will be developed. Environmental impact assessment will be required for all Olympic projects and facilities. Whole process monitoring and assessment will be launched in the preparation and staging of the Olympic Games.