Until now, the nature already discovered mineral and mineral aggregation material nearly3000 kinds. About 230 kinds of them are part of gems and semi-precious stone categories. But the familiar gems and semi-precious stone only are about 30 kinds. Its chemical composition respectively contains the natural element, the oxide compound, hydroxide, silicate and phosphate and so on.
The common 30 kinds of gems and semi-precious stone are: diamond, ruby (corundum), sapphire (corundum), emerald, cat`s eye stone (chrysoberyl), aquamarine, opal, topaz, lapis lazuli, crystal, amethyst, tourmaline, garnet, Tanzania mulberry stone, rose quartz, moon stone, to force the sub- stone(opal), the Australian jade(chrysoprase), scarlet gem (spinel), turquoise, olivine, Peking jade (rhodonite), malachite, amethyst (fluorite), jadeite, Hetian jade, Xiuyan jade, Dushan jade, serpentine, Shoushan stone, Qingtian stone and chicken-blood colored stone.