France - Paris
At the end of the 19th century, Paris' urban boundaries kept expanding. For the lack of planning, most businesses involuntarily converged in the suburbs. The disorderly spread of detached dwellings checked the urban development.
In 1932, Paris broke away from the practice of conventional administrative division. A Paris region was established in line with the need of regional development, initiating urban planning in the real sense.
From the 1930s to the 1950s, Paris went through two large-scale regional planning, the core of which was to control urban construction land, protect non-construction land, lower center region density while increasing suburban density to promote balanced development between regions.
In 1965, a cluster of five satellite towns with expected long-term population from 200,000 to 300,000 was planned somewhere 25 to 30 kilometers away from Paris. The plan was gradually put into operation in 1970.
The population of Paris' satellite towns averages up to 300,000. Beautiful natural environment, sound cultural service amenities and adequate employment opportunities render residents a quality life equivalent to that of downtown Paris. Therefore, satellite towns display strong vitality and attraction.
With regard to urban development, while shouldering most development cost, the government delegates administrative powers to subordinate districts. Hence, subordinate districts enjoy more autonomy and show more initiatives in the construction of satellite towns.