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About Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prize is an international award given yearly since 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for peace. In 1968, the Bank of Sweden instituted the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize.

    The Prize Winners are announced in October every year. They receive their awards (a prize amount, a gold medal and a diploma) on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
    Alfred Nobel was born in 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. His family was descended from Olof Rudbeck, the best-known technical genius of Sweden's 17th century era as a great power in northern Europe.

    Nobel invented dynamite in 1866 and later built up companies and laboratories in more than 20 countries all over the world.

    On November 27, 1895, Nobel signed his last will providing for the establishment of the Nobel Prize. He died of cerebral haemorrhage in his home in San Remo, Italy on December 10, 1896.
    Alfred died in San Remo, Italy on December 10, 1896. In his last will and testament, he wrote that much of his fortune was to be used to give prizes to those who have done their best for humanity in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace.

    In 1901, the first Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature were first awarded in Stockholm, Sweden and the Peace Prize in Kristiania (now Oslo), Norway.
    The first Prize Award Ceremony in 1901 at the Old Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm.
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Rudolph A. Marcus


Rudolph A. Marcus, Arthur Amos Noyes Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology, was born in Montreal, Canada in 1923.  After receiving a B.Sc. (1943) and Ph.D. (1946)  (experimental research) from McGill University, followed by post-doctoral research with E. W. R. Steacie at the National Research Council of Canada (experiment) and with Oscar K. Rice at the University of North Carolina (theory), he became a member of the faculty of the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (1951-64) and the University of Illinois (1964-78).  He joined the Caltech faculty as Noyes Professor in 1978. 

His principal researches have been on almost every aspect of chemical reaction rate theory.  The "Marcus theory" of electron transfer processes and the RRKM (Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus) theory of unimolecular reactions continue to be the standard theories in their respective fields.  He is known for  pioneering contributions to other areas such as  reaction coordinate Hamiltonians, vibrationally adiabatic reactions, semiclassical collision and reaction rate theory, intramolecular dynamics and, most recently, "mass-independent" isotope effects in stratospheric ozone and in the earliest minerals in the solar system. The electron transfer theory has been applied to numerous fields, including reactions in solution, at electrodes and other interfaces, solvent dynamics, "inverted effect" phenomena, and to biological systems, as in photosynthesis and electron transfer in proteins.  It has been extended to atom, proton, and group transfer reactions. A trademark of his research has been a strong interaction between theory and experiment. His current research includes spectral properties (fluorescence intermittency) of nanoparticles, single-molecule studies of electron transfer and catalysis in proteins, “on water” catalysis of organic cycloaddition reactions, and unusual isotope effects (O, C and N) in chemical and photochemical reactions.

Marcus received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1992, the Wolf Prize in 1985, the National Medal of Science in 1989, and various honorary doctorates and professorships, and other awards.  He is a foreign or honorary member of many societies, including the Royal Society of London, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society of Canada.

Beijing Foreign Affairs Office