Established in 1966 by the United States Association for Computing Machinery, the Turing Award, also called the A.M. Turing Award, is given as a prize exclusively to those individuals who have made significant contributions to the computer field.
The name of the Award comes partly from and is in memory of a pioneer in computer science - British scientist Alan Turing. The winners' contributions must be of lasting and significant importance in terms of advancement in the computer field. Most of the winners have been computer scientists.
As a renowned prize in the computer field, the Turing Award is known as "the Nobel Prize in the Computer Field". The requirements for the winners are extremely high, and the evaluating procedure is also very strict. Generally only one computer scientist is awarded the prize each year, however, there have been rare years in which two or more scientists are awarded for their contributions to the same research interests.
Each year, the United States Association for Computing Machinery will ask the nominators to recommend the candidates for the year's Turing Award, along with a 300-to-500-word article explaining why the candidate is eligible for the award. Anybody can be a nominator. The United States Association for Computing Machinery will form an award committee for the rigorous screening of the nominees and the determination of the final laureate winner for the year.
Until today, only one Chinese has won this honor. He is Andrew Chi-Chih Yao, the winner of the Turing Award for year 2000.